Image_2_Cerebral Microbleeds, Cerebrospinal Fluid, and Neuroimaging Markers in Clinical Subtypes of Alzheimer's Disease.TIF
Lobar cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) due to vascular amyloid beta (Aβ) deposits. However, the relationship between lobar CMBs and clinical subtypes of AD remains unknown. Here, we enrolled patients with early- and late-onset amnestic dominant AD, logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) and posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) who were compatible with the AD criteria. We then examined the levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers [Aβ1-42, Aβ1-40, Aβ1-38, phosphorylated tau 181 (P-Tau), total tau (T-Tau), neurofilament light chain (NFL), and chitinase 3-like 1 protein (YKL-40)], analyzed the number and localization of CMBs, and measured the cerebral blood flow (CBF) volume by 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer single photon emission computerized tomography (99mTc ECD-SPECT), as well as the mean cortical standard uptake value ratio by 11C-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B-positron emission tomography (11C PiB-PET). Lobar CMBs in lvPPA were distributed in the temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes with the left side predominance, while the CBF volume in lvPPA significantly decreased in the left temporal area, where the number of lobar CMBs and the CBF volumes showed a significant inversely correlation. The CSF levels of NFL in lvPPA were significantly higher compared to the other AD subtypes and non-demented subjects. The numbers of lobar CMBs significantly increased the CSF levels of NFL in the total AD patients, additionally, among AD subtypes, the CSF levels of NFL in lvPPA predominantly were higher by increasing number of lobar CMBs. On the other hand, the CSF levels of Aβ1-38, Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42, P-Tau, and T-Tau were lower by increasing number of lobar CMBs in the total AD patients. These findings may suggest that aberrant brain hypoperfusion in lvPPA was derived from the brain atrophy due to neurodegeneration, and possibly may involve the aberrant microcirculation causing by lobar CMBs and cerebrovascular injuries, with the left side dominance, consequently leading to a clinical phenotype of logopenic variant.