Image_2_Application of Convolutional Neural Network in the Diagnosis of Cavernous Sinus Invasion in Pituitary Adenoma.tif
Convolutional neural network (CNN) is a deep-learning method for image classification and recognition based on a multi-layer NN. In this study, CNN was used to accurately assess cavernous sinus invasion (CSI) in pituitary adenoma (PA).Methods
A total of 371 patients with PA were enrolled in the retrospective study. The cohort was divided into the invasive (n = 102) and non-invasive groups (n = 269) based on surgically confirmed CSI. Images were selected on the T1-enhanced imaging on MR scans. The cohort underwent a fivefold division of randomized datasets for cross-validation. Then, a tenfold augmented dataset (horizontal flip and rotation) of the training set was enrolled in the pre-trained Resnet50 model for transfer learning. The testing set was imported into the trained model for evaluation. Gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM) was used to obtain the occlusion map. The diagnostic values were compared with different dichotomizations of the Knosp grading system (grades 0-1/2-4, 0-2/3a-4, and 0-3a/3b-4).Results
Based on Knosp grades, 20 cases of grade 0, 107 cases of grade 1, 82 cases of grade 2, 104 cases of grade 3a, 22 cases of grade 3b, and 36 cases of grade 4 were recorded. The CSI rates were 0%, 3.7%, 18.3%, 37.5%, 54.5%, and 88.9%. The predicted accuracies of the three dichotomies were 60%, 74%, and 81%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) of Knosp grade for CSI prediction was 0.84; the cutoff was 2.5 with a Youden value of 0.62. The accuracies of the CNN model ranged from 0.80 to 0.96, with AUC-ROC values ranging from 0.89 to 0.98. The Grad-CAM saliency maps confirmed that the region of interest of the model was around the sellar region.Conclusions
We constructed a CNN model with a high proficiency at CSI diagnosis. A more accurate CSI identification was achieved with the constructed CNN than the Knosp grading system.