Image_1_Understanding the Bacterial Response to Mycotoxins: The Transcriptomic Analysis of Deoxynivalenol-Induced Changes in Devosia mutans 17-2-E-8.tiff
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a major fusarium toxin widely detected in cereal grains. The inadvertent exposure to this fungal secondary-metabolite gives rise to a myriad of adverse health effects including appetite loss, emesis, and suppression of the immune system. While most of the attention this mycotoxin has gained in the past four decades was related to its eukaryotic toxicity (monogastric animals and plants more precisely), recent studies have begun to reveal its negative influence on prokaryotes. Recently presented evidence indicates that DON can negatively affect many bacterial species, raising the possibility of DON-induced imbalances within the microbiota of the human and animal gut, in addition to other environmental niches. This in turn has led to a greater interest in understanding bacterial responses toward DON, and the involved mechanism(s) and metabolic pathways, in order to build a more comprehensive picture of DON-induced changes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes alike. This study reveals the transcriptomic profiling of Devosia mutans strain 17-2-E-8 after the inclusion of DON within its growth medium. The results highlight three adaptive mechanisms involved in the response of D. mutans 17-2-E-8 to this mycotoxin, which include: (a) activation of adenosine 5’-triphosphate-binding cassette transporters; (b) engagement of a toxin-specific pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent detoxification pathway; and finally (c) the upregulation of auxiliary coping proteins such as porins, glutathione S-transferases, and phosphotransferases. Some of the identified mechanisms are universal in nature and are shared with other bacterial genera and species.