Image_1_Uncovering a Distinct Gene Signature in Endothelial Cells Associated With Contrast Enhancement in Glioblastoma.pdf
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal type of brain tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been commonly used for GBM diagnosis. Contrast enhancement (CE) on T1-weighted sequences are presented in nearly all GBM as a result of high vascular permeability in glioblastomas. Although several radiomics studies indicated that CE is associated with distinct molecular signatures in tumors, the effects of vascular endothelial cells, the key component of blood brain barrier (BBB) controlling vascular permeability, on CE have not been thoroughly analyzed.Methods
Endothelial cell enriched genes have been identified using transcriptome data from 128 patients by a systematic method based on correlation analysis. Distinct endothelial cell enriched genes associated with CE were identified by analyzing difference of correlation score between CE-high and CE–low GBM cases. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on in-house patient cohort to validate the selected genes associated with CE. Moreover, a survival analysis was conducted to uncover the relation between CE and patient survival.Results
We illustrated that CE is associated with distinct vascular molecular imprints characterized by up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes and deregulation of BBB related genes. Among them, PLVAP is up-regulated, whereas TJP1 and ABCG2 are down-regulated in the vasculature of GBM with high CE. In addition, we found that the high CE is associated with poor prognosis and GBM mesenchymal subtype.Conclusion
We provide an additional insight to reveal the molecular trait for CE in MRI images with special focus on vascular endothelial cells, linking CE with BBB disruption in the molecular level. This study provides a potential new direction that may be applied for the treatment optimization based on MRI features.