Image_1_The Prognostic Value of Non-Predominant Micropapillary Pattern in a Large Cohort of Resected Invasive Lung Adenocarcinoma Measuring ≤3 cm.tif
The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of non-predominant micropapillary pattern in small sized invasive lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 986 lung adenocarcinoma patients with tumor size ≤3 cm were identified and classified according to the IALSC/ATS/ERS classification. Emphasis was placed on the impact of non-predominant micropapillary pattern on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The relationship between lung adenocarcinoma subtype and lymph node involvement, EGFR mutation and KRAS mutation was also evaluated. A nomogram was developed to predict the probability of 3- and 5-year OS for these patients. The concordance index and calibration plot were used to validate this model. Among all 986 patients, the percentages of lymph node involvement were: 58.1, 50.0, 33.5, 21.4, 21.1, 10.9, 0, and 0% for micropapillary predominant, solid predominant, acinar predominant, papillary predominant, invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA), lepidic predominant, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), respectively. The frequency of EGFR mutation in the cases of lepidic predominant, acinar predominant, MIA, micropapillary predominant, papillary predominant, solid predominant, IMA, and AIS were 51.1, 45.2, 44.4, 36.8, 29.3, 26.8, 8.3, and 0%, respectively. A non-predominant micropapillary pattern was observed in 344 (38.4%) invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC), and its presence predicted a poorer DFS (median: 56.0 months vs. 66.0 months, P <0.001) and OS (median: 61.0 months vs. 70.0 months, P <0.001). After propensity score matching, non-predominant micropapillary pattern retained its unfavorable effect on DFS (P = 0.007) and OS (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that non-predominant micropapillary pattern was identified as an independent prognostic factor for DFS (P = 0.003) and OS (P <0.001) in IAC. The nomogram showed good calibration and reliable discrimination ability (C-index = 0.775) to evaluated the 3- and 5-year OS. This retrospective analysis of patients with small sized IAC suggests the value of non-predominant micropapillary pattern to predict poor prognosis. A reliable nomogram model was constructed to provide personalized survival predictions.