Image_1_Staphylococcus saprophyticus From Clinical and Environmental Origins Have Distinct Biofilm Composition.tiff (2.12 MB)
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posted on 07.06.2021, 04:47 by Opeyemi U. Lawal, Marta Barata, Maria J. Fraqueza, Peder Worning, Mette D. Bartels, Luisa Goncalves, Paulo Paixão, Elsa Goncalves, Cristina Toscano, Joanna Empel, Malgorzata Urbaś, Maria A. Domiìnguez, Henrik Westh, Hermínia de Lencastre, Maria Miragaia

Biofilm formation has been shown to be critical to the success of uropathogens. Although Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common cause of urinary tract infections, its biofilm production capacity, composition, genetic basis, and origin are poorly understood. We investigated biofilm formation in a large and diverse collection of S. saprophyticus (n = 422). Biofilm matrix composition was assessed in representative strains (n = 63) belonging to two main S. saprophyticus lineages (G and S) recovered from human infection, colonization, and food-related environment using biofilm detachment approach. To identify factors that could be associated with biofilm formation and structure variation, we used a pangenome-wide association study approach. Almost all the isolates (91%; n = 384/422) produced biofilm. Among the 63 representative strains, we identified eight biofilm matrix phenotypes, but the most common were composed of protein or protein–extracellular DNA (eDNA)–polysaccharides (38%, 24/63 each). Biofilms containing protein–eDNA–polysaccharides were linked to lineage G and environmental isolates, whereas protein-based biofilms were produced by lineage S and infection isolates (p < 0.05). Putative biofilm-associated genes, namely, aas, atl, ebpS, uafA, sasF, sasD, sdrH, splE, sdrE, sdrC, sraP, and ica genes, were found with different frequencies (3–100%), but there was no correlation between their presence and biofilm production or matrix types. Notably, icaC_1 was ubiquitous in the collection, while icaR was lineage G-associated, and only four strains carried a complete ica gene cluster (icaADBCR) except one that was without icaR. We provided evidence, using a comparative genomic approach, that the complete icaADBCR cluster was acquired multiple times by S. saprophyticus and originated from other coagulase-negative staphylococci. Overall, the composition of S. saprophyticus biofilms was distinct in environmental and clinical isolates, suggesting that modulation of biofilm structure could be a key step in the pathogenicity of these bacteria. Moreover, biofilm production in S. saprophyticus is ica-independent, and the complete icaADBCR was acquired from other staphylococci.

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