Image_1_Serum vitamin E level and functional prognosis after traumatic brain injury with intracranial injury: A multicenter prospective study.tif
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem with high mortality and disability. Vitamin E, one of the antioxidants for treatment of TBI, has not been sufficiently evaluated for predicting prognosis of TBI. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of vitamin E on functional outcomes of TBI patients with intracranial injury.Methods
A multi-center prospective cohort study was conducted in five university hospitals between 2018 and 2020. Adult TBI patients who visited the emergency department (ED) with intracranial hemorrhage or diffuse axonal injury confirmed by radiological examination were eligible. Serum vitamin E levels (mg/dL) were categorized into 4 groups: low (0.0–5.4), low-normal (5.5–10.9), high-normal (11.0–16.9), and high (17.0–). Study outcomes were set as 1- and 6-month disability (Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) 1–4). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of vitamin E for related outcomes.Results
Among 550 eligible TBI patients with intracranial injury, the median (IQR) of serum vitamin E was 10.0 (8.0–12.3) mg/dL; 204/550 (37.1%) had 1-month disability and 197/544 (36.1%) had 6-month disability of GOS 1–4. Compared with the high-normal group, the odds of 1-month disability and 6-month disability increased in the low and low-normal group (AORs (95% CIs): 3.66 (1.62–8.27) and 2.60 (1.15–5.85) for the low group and 1.63 (1.08–2.48) and 1.60 (1.04–2.43) for the low-normal group, respectively).Conclusion
Low serum vitamin E level was associated with poor prognosis at 1 and 6 months after TBI with intracranial injury.