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posted on 2021-02-25, 06:19 authored by Zhike Zhou, Shanshan Zhong, Yifan Liang, Xiaoqian Zhang, Rongwei Zhang, Kexin Kang, Huiling Qu, Ying Xu, Chuansheng Zhao, Mei Zhao

Background: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum uric acid (UA) and the risk of dementia and its subtypes.

Methods: Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched from inception to July 2020. Random-effect models were employed to analyze the standard mean difference (SMD) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: Twenty-three eligible studies involving 5,575 participants were identified. The overall results showed lower levels of UA in dementia relative to non-dementia controls [SMD = −0.32 (−0.64; −0.01) p = 0.04]. The subgroup analysis of the type of dementia demonstrated a significant association of UA with Alzheimer's disease (AD) [SMD = −0.58 (−1.02; −0.15) p = 0.009] and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) [SMD = −0.33 (−0.52; −0.14) p = 0.001] but not with vascular dementia (VaD). The stratification analysis of the concentrations of UA revealed that the UA quartile 1–2 was negatively correlated with dementia and neurodegenerative subtypes (p < 0.05), whereas a positive correlation of UA quartile 4 with dementia was noted (p = 0.028). Additionally, the meta-regression analysis on confounders showed that not age, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or smoking but education (p = 0.003) exerted an influence of the UA in the risk estimate of dementia.

Conclusions: Low concentrations of UA (< 292 μmol/L or 4.91 mg/dL) is a potential risk factor for AD and PDD but not for VaD. The mechanism of different concentrations of the UA in dementia needs to be confirmed through further investigation.