Image_1_Screening for Susceptibility-Related Factors and Biomarkers of Xianling Gubao Capsule-Induced Liver Injury.tif
Although increasing reports from the literature on herbal-related hepatotoxicity, the identification of susceptibility-related factors and biomarkers remains challenging due to idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI). As a well-known Chinese medicine prescription, Xianling Gubao Capsule (XLGB) has attracted great attention due to reports of potential liver toxicity. But the mechanism behind it is difficult to determine. In this paper, we found that XLGB-induced liver injury belongs to IDILI through the analysis of clinical liver injury cases. In toxicological experiment assessment, co-exposure to XLGB and non-toxic dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could cause evident liver injury as manifested by significantly increased plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and obvious liver histological damage. However, it failed to induce observable liver injury in normal rats, suggesting that mild immune stress may be a susceptibility factor for XLGB-induced idiosyncratic liver injury. Furthermore, plasma cytokines were determined and 15 cytokines (such as IL-1β, IFN-γ, and MIP-2α etc) were acquired by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis. The expression of these 15 cytokines in LPS group was significantly up-regulated in contrast to the normal group. Meanwhile, the metabolomics profile showed that mild immune stress caused metabolic reprogramming, including sphingolipid metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. 8 potential biomarkers (such as sphinganine, glycerophosphoethanolamine, and phenylalanine etc.) were identified by correlation analysis. Therefore, these results suggested that intracellular metabolism and immune changes induced by mild immune stress may be important susceptibility mechanisms for XLGB IDILI.