Image_1_SNAP25 Inhibits Glioma Progression by Regulating Synapse Plasticity via GLS-Mediated Glutaminolysis.tif
Neuronal activity regulated by synaptic communication exerts an important role in tumorigenesis and progression in brain tumors. Genes for soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) annotated with the function ‘vesicle’ about synaptic connectivity were identified, and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), one of those proteins, was found to have discrepant expression levels in neuropathies. However, the specific mechanism and prognostic value of SNAP25 during glioma progression remain unclear.Methods
Using RNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, the differential synaptosis-related genes between low grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma (GBM) were identified as highly correlated. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and survival analysis were used to differentiate the outcome of low- and high-risk patients, and the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) cohort was used for validation of the data set. RT-qPCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry assays were performed to examine the expression level of SNAP25 in glioma cells and samples. Functional assays were performed to identify the effects of SNAP25 knockdown and overexpression on cell viability, migration, and invasion. Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomics approach was presented for identifying crucial metabolic disturbances in glioma cells. In situ mouse xenograft model was used to investigate the role of SNAP25 in vivo. Then, an immunofluorescence assay of the xenograft tissue was applied to evaluate the expression of the neuronal dendron formation marker-Microtubule Associated Protein 2 (MAP2).Results
SNAP25 was decreased in level of expression in glioma tissues and cell lines, and low-level SNAP25 indicated an unfavorable prognosis of glioma patients. SNAP25 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and fostered glutamine metabolism of glioma cells, exerting a tumor suppressor role. Overexpressed SNAP25 exerted a lower expression level of MAP2, indicating poor neuronal plasticity and connectivity. SNAP25 could regulate glutaminase (GLS)-mediated glutaminolysis, and GLS knockdown could rescue the anti-tumor effect of SNAP25 in glioma cells. Moreover, upregulated SNAP25 also decreased tumor volume and prolonged the overall survival (OS) of the xenograft mouse.Conclusion
SNAP25, a tumor suppressor inhibited carcinogenesis of glioma via limiting glutamate metabolism by regulating GLS expression, as well as inhibiting dendritic formation, which could be considered as a novel molecular therapeutic target for glioma.