Image_1_Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nutrient Signaling Pathways During Winemaking: A Phenomics Approach.PDF (229.18 kB)

Image_1_Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nutrient Signaling Pathways During Winemaking: A Phenomics Approach.PDF

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posted on 22.07.2020, 04:14 by Beatriz Vallejo, Emilien Peltier, Victor Garrigós, Emilia Matallana, Philippe Marullo, Agustín Aranda

The ability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to adapt to the changing environment of industrial processes lies in the activation and coordination of many molecular pathways. The most relevant ones are nutrient signaling pathways because they control growth and stress response mechanisms as a result of nutrient availability or scarcity and, therefore, leave an ample margin to improve yeast biotechnological performance. A standardized grape juice fermentation assay allowed the analysis of mutants for different elements of many nutrient signaling pathways under different conditions (low/high nitrogen and different oxygenation levels) to allow genetic-environment interactions to be analyzed. The results indicate that the cAMP-dependent PKA pathway is the most relevant regardless of fermentation conditions, while mutations on TOR pathways display an effect that depends on nitrogen availability. The production of metabolites of interest, such as glycerol, acetic acid and pyruvate, is controlled in a coordinated manner by the contribution of several components of different pathways. Ras GTPase Ras2, a stimulator of cAMP production, is a key factor for achieving fermentation, and is also relevant for sensing nitrogen availability. Increasing cAMP concentrations by deleting an enzyme used for its degradation, phosphodiesterase Pde2, proved a good way to increase fermentation kinetics, and offered keys for biotechnological improvement. Surprisingly glucose repression protein kinase Snf1 and Nitrogen Catabolite Repression transcription factor Gln3 are relevant in fermentation, even in the absence of starvation. Gln3 proved essential for respiration in several genetic backgrounds, and its presence is required to achieve full glucose de-repression. Therefore, most pathways sense different types of nutrients and only their coordinated action can ensure successful wine fermentation.

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