Image_1_Oral Treatment With Ileal Spores Triggers Immunometabolic Shifts in Chicken Gut.TIF (22.58 kB)
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Image_1_Oral Treatment With Ileal Spores Triggers Immunometabolic Shifts in Chicken Gut.TIF

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posted on 08.09.2020, 05:08 by Graham A. J. Redweik, Michael H. Kogut, Ryan J. Arsenault, Melha Mellata

The animal gut is a major site affecting productivity via its role in mediating functions like food conversion and pathogen colonization. Live microorganisms like probiotics are widely used to improve poultry productivity. However, given that chicks receive their microbiota from the environment at-hatch, a bacterial treatment that can stimulate gut immune maturation in early life can benefit animal health. Thus, our lab has begun investigating alternative means to improve poultry health via single inoculation with microbial spores. In this study, we orally-inoculated day-old chicks with ileal scrapings (ISs) enriched for spores via chloroform treatment (SPORE) or non-treated (CON). At 3, 7, and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi), gut permeability was measured via FITC-dextran assay in serum. Additionally, small intestinal scrapings (SISs) were tested for in vitro Salmonella killing and total IgA. Lastly, distal ileum was either fixed or flash-frozen for microscopy or kinome peptide array, respectively. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, SPORE and CON inocula were highly-similar in bacterial composition. However, spores were detected in SPORE but not in CON inoculum. Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) filaments were observed in the distal ileum in SPORE birds as early as 3 dpi and all birds at 7 and 14 dpi. Additionally, SFB were detected via PCR in the ceca, colonizing all SPORE birds at 3 dpi. At 3 dpi, SPORE birds exhibited lower gut permeability vs. CON. In SPORE birds, SISs induced greater Salmonella growth in vitro at 3 dpi yet significantly-reduced Salmonella load at 7 and 14 dpi compared to CON in an IgA-independent manner. SPORE distal ileal tissue exhibited unique upregulation of several immunometabolic processes vs. CON birds, including innate (Toll-like receptor, JAK-STAT) and adaptive (T/B cell receptor, TH17 differentiation) immune pathways, PI3K/Akt signaling, mTOR signaling, and insulin-related pathways. Collectively, these data suggest oral inoculation with ileal spores generally-improved gut health.

Importance: We report that ileal, spore-forming commensal microbes have potent effects on ileum immunometabolism. Additionally, we identify a functional ileal phenotype in spore-treated chickens, which matched several of the observed immunometabolic changes and was associated with SFB colonization in the ileum.