Image_1_Omentin-1 Modulates Macrophage Function via Integrin Receptors αvβ3 and αvβ5 and Reverses Plaque Vulnerability in Animal Models of Atherosclerosis.pdf
Backgrounds: Omentin-1 is a novel cytokine that is primarily released by the epicardial adipose tissue. Molecular structure analysis revealed that it contained a fibrinogen-like domain. Clinical studies have demonstrated that the expression of omentin-1 is tightly associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, but the receptor by which omentin-1 modulates macrophage function has not been identified yet.
Objective: This study sought to investigate the effect of omentin-1 on already-established atherosclerosis (AS) lesions in both ApoE−/− and Ldlr−/− mice and further, study its underlying mechanisms.
Methods and Results: We investigated the effect of omentin-1 on the plaque phenotype by implanting a minipump in ApoE−/− and Ldlr−/− mice. In vivo studies showed that the infusion of omentin-1 increased the collagen content and mitigated the formation of the necrotic core in both animal models. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that omentin-1 suppressed inflammatory cytokines expression, macrophage infiltration, and apoptosis within the plaque. An immunoprecipitation experiment and confocal microscopy analysis confirmed the binding of omentin-1 to the integrin receptors αvβ3 and αvβ5. The cell studies demonstrated that omentin-1 suppressed the apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines expression induced by the oxidized low-density lipoprotein in the macrophage. In addition, omentin-1 promoted the phosphorylation of the integrin-relevant signaling pathway as well as the Akt and AMPK in the macrophage. The addition of the inhibitor of the integrin receptor or interfering with the expression of the integrin subunit αv (ITGAV) both significantly abrogated the bioeffects induced by omentin-1. A flow cytometry analysis indicated that the antibodies against αvβ3 and αvβ5 had a competitive effect on the omentin-1 binding to the cell membrane.
Conclusions: The administration of adipokine omentin-1 can inhibit the necrotic cores formation and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression within the AS lesion. The mechanisms may include the suppression of apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the macrophage by binding to the integrin receptors αvβ3 and αvβ5.