Image_1_Multimeric Association of Purified Novel Bowman-Birk Inhibitor From the Medicinal Forage Legume Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC..TIF
A Bowman-Birk protease, i.e., Mucuna pruriens trypsin inhibitor (MPTI), was purified from the seeds by 55.702-fold and revealed a single trypsin inhibitor on a zymogram with a specific activity of 202.31 TIU/mg of protein. On sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) under non-reducing conditions, the protease trypsin inhibitor fraction [i.e., trypsin inhibitor non-reducing (TINR)] exhibited molecular weights of 74 and 37 kDa, and under reducing conditions [i.e., trypsin inhibitor reducing (TIR)], 37 and 18 kDa. TINR-37 revealed protease inhibitor activity on native PAGE and 37 and 18 kDa protein bands on SDS–PAGE. TINR-74 showed peaks corresponding to 18.695, 37.39, 56.085, and 74.78 kDa on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (ESI/QTOF-MS). Similarly, TINR-37 displayed 18.695 and 37.39 kDa peaks. Furthermore, TIR-37 and TIR-18 exhibited peaks corresponding to 37.39 and 18.695 kDa. Multiple peaks observed by the UPLC-ESI/QTOF analysis revealed the multimeric association, confirming the characteristic and functional features of Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBIs). The multimeric association helps to achieve more stability, thus enhancing their functional efficiency. MPTI was found to be a competitive inhibitor which again suggested that it belongs to the BBI family of inhibitors, displayed an inhibitor constant of 1.3 × 10–6 M, and further demonstrates potent anti-inflammatory activity. The study provided a comprehensive basis for the identification of multimeric associates and their therapeutic potential, which could elaborate the stability and functional efficiency of the MPTI in the native state from M. pruriens.