Image_1_Low Expression of ADCY4 Predicts Worse Survival of Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Based on Integrated Analysis and Immunohistochemical Verification.tif
The molecular mechanism underlying the carcinogenesis and development of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) has not been sufficiently elucidated. This analysis was performed to find pivotal genes and explore their prognostic roles in LUSC.Methods
A microarray dataset from GEO (GSE19188) and a TCGA-LUSC dataset were used to identify differentially co-expressed genes through Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) and differential gene expression analysis. We conducted functional enrichment analyses of differentially co-expressed genes and established a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Then, we identified the top 10 hub genes using the Maximal Clique Centrality (MCC) algorithm. We performed overall survival (OS) analysis of these hub genes among LUSC cases. GSEA analyses of survival-related hub genes were conducted. Ultimately, the GEO and The Human Protein Atlas (THPA) databases and immunohistochemistry (IHC) results from the real world were used to verify our findings.Results
A list of 576 differentially co-expressed genes were selected. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that regulation of vasculature development, cell−cell junctions, actin binding and PPAR signaling pathways were mainly enriched. The top 10 hub genes were selected according to the ranking of MCC scores, and 5 genes were closely correlated with OS of LUSC. Additionally, GSEA analysis showed that spliceosome and cell adhesion molecules were associated with the expression of GNG11 and ADCY4, respectively. The GSE30219 and THPA databases and IHC results from the real world indicated that although GNG11 was not detected, ADCY4 was obviously downregulated in LUSC tissues at the mRNA and protein levels.Conclusions
This analysis showed that survival-related hub genes are highly correlated to the tumorigenesis and development of LUSC. Additionally, ADCY4 is a candidate therapeutic and prognostic biomarker of LUSC.