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posted on 24.11.2021, 06:26 by Tomoko Yagi, Shuntaro Ando, Satoshi Usami, Syudo Yamasaki, Masaya Morita, Tomoki Kiyono, Noriyuki Hayashi, Kaori Endo, Yudai Iijima, Yuko Morimoto, Sho Kanata, Shinya Fujikawa, Shinsuke Koike, Yukiko Kano, Mariko Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Atsushi Nishida, Kiyoto Kasai

Background: Previous studies have revealed an association between maternal depressive/anxious symptoms and children's tics. However, the longitudinal relationships between these symptoms remain unclear. We examined the longitudinal relationships between maternal depressive/anxious symptoms and children's tic frequency in early adolescence with a population-based sample.

Methods: The participants consisted of 3,171 children and their mothers from the Tokyo Teen Cohort (TTC) study, a population-representative longitudinal study that was launched in Tokyo in 2012. Maternal depressive/anxious symptoms and children's tics were examined using self-report questionnaires at the ages of 10 (time 1, T1) and 12 (time 2, T2). A cross-lagged model was used to explore the relationships between maternal depressive/anxious symptoms and children's tic frequency.

Results: Higher levels of maternal depressive/anxious symptoms at T1 were related to an increased children's tic frequency at T2 (β = 0.06, p < 0.001). Furthermore, more frequent children's tics at T1 were positively related to maternal depressive/anxious symptoms at T2 (β = 0.06, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: These findings suggest a longitudinal bidirectional relationship between maternal depressive/anxious symptoms and children's tic frequency in early adolescence that may exacerbate each other over time and possibly create a vicious cycle. When an early adolescent has tics, it might be important to identify and treat related maternal depressive/anxious symptoms.

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