Image_1_Increased Expression of TICRR Predicts Poor Clinical Outcomes: A Potential Therapeutic Target for Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma.TIF
Background: Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC), although the second-most common type of renal cell carcinoma, still lacks specific biomarkers for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. TopBP1-interacting checkpoint and replication regulator (TICRR) is a DNA replication initiation regulator upregulated in various cancers. We aimed to evaluate the role of TICRR in PRCC tumorigenesis and prognosis.
Methods: Based on the Kidney Renal Papillary cell carcinoma Project (KIRP) on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, we determined the expression of TICRR using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The biological functions of TICRR were evaluated using the Metascape database and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). The association between TICRR and immune cell infiltration was investigated by single sample GSEA. Logistic analysis was applied to study the correlation between TICRR expression and clinicopathological characteristics. Finally, Cox regression analysis, Kaplan–Meier analysis, and nomograms were used to determine the predictive value of TICRR on clinical outcomes in PRCC patients.
Results:TICRR expression was significantly elevated in PRCC tumors (P < 0.001). Functional annotation indicated enrichment with negative regulation of cell division, cell cycle, and corresponding pathways in the high TICRR expression phenotype. High TICRR expression in PRCC was associated with female sex, younger age, and worse clinical stages. Cox regression analysis revealed that TICRR was a risk factor for overall survival [hazard ratio (HR): 2.80, P = 0.002], progression-free interval (HR: 2.86, P < 0.001), and disease-specific survival (HR: 7.03, P < 0.001), especially in patients with male sex, age below 60 years, clinical stages II–IV and clinical T stage T1–T2.
Conclusion: Increased TICRR expression in PRCC might play a role in tumorigenesis by regulating the cell cycle and has prognostic value for clinical outcomes.
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- Gene and Molecular Therapy
- Genetically Modified Animals
- Developmental Genetics (incl. Sex Determination)
- Epigenetics (incl. Genome Methylation and Epigenomics)
- Gene Expression (incl. Microarray and other genome-wide approaches)
- Livestock Cloning
- Genome Structure and Regulation
- Genetic Engineering