Image_1_Hypoxic Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Maintenance and Regeneration: A Systematic Review.TIF
In skeletal muscle tissue, oxygen (O2) plays a pivotal role in both metabolism and the regulation of several intercellular pathways, which can modify proliferation, differentiation and survival of cells within the myogenic lineage. The concentration of oxygen in muscle tissue is reduced during embryogenesis and pathological conditions. Myogenic progenitor cells, namely satellite cells, are necessary for muscular regeneration in adults and are localized in a hypoxic microenvironment under the basal lamina, suggesting that the O2 level could affect their function. This review presents the effects of reduced oxygen levels (hypoxia) on satellite cell survival, myoblast regeneration and differentiation in vertebrates. Further investigations and understanding of the pathways involved in adult muscle regeneration during hypoxic conditions are maybe clinically relevant to seek for novel drug treatments for patients with severe muscle damage. We especially outlined the effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1A), the most studied transcriptional regulator of cellular and developmental response to hypoxia, whose investigation has recently been awarded with the Nobel price.