Image_1_Global Analysis of UDP Glucose Pyrophosphorylase (UDPGP) Gene Family in Plants: Conserved Evolution Involved in Cell Death.JPEG
UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase (UDPGP) family genes have been reported to play essential roles in cell death or individual survival. However, a systematic analysis on UDPGP gene family has not been performed yet. In this study, a total of 454 UDPGP proteins from 76 different species were analyzed. The analyses of the phylogenetic tree and orthogroups divided UDPGPs into three clades, including UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAP), UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP, containing UGP-A and UGP-B), and UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USP). The evolutionary history of the UDPGPs indicated that the members of UAP, USP, and UGP-B were relatively conserved while varied in UGP-A. Homologous sequences of UGP-B and USP were found only in plants. The expression profile of UDPGP genes in Oryza sativa was mainly motivated under jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), cadmium, and cold treatments, indicating that UDPGPs may play an important role in plant development and environment endurance. The key amino acids regulating the activity of UDPGPs were analyzed, and almost all of them were located in the NB-loop, SB-loop, or conserved motifs. Analysis of the natural variants of UDPGPs in rice revealed that only a few missense mutants existed in coding sequences (CDSs), and most of the resulting variations were located in the non-motif sites, indicating the conserved structure and function of UDPGPs in the evolution. Furthermore, alternative splicing may play a key role in regulating the activity of UDPGPs. The spatial structure prediction, enzymatic analysis, and transgenic verification of UAP isoforms illustrated that the loss of N- and C-terminal sequences did not affect the overall 3D structures, but the N- and C-terminal sequences are important for UAP genes to maintain their enzymatic activity. These results revealed a conserved UDPGP gene family and provided valuable information for further deep functional investigation of the UDPGP gene family in plants.