Image_1_Flavorless vs. Flavored Electronic Cigarette-Generated Aerosol and E-Liquid on the Growth of Common Oral Commensal Streptococci.TIF (683 kB)
Download file

Image_1_Flavorless vs. Flavored Electronic Cigarette-Generated Aerosol and E-Liquid on the Growth of Common Oral Commensal Streptococci.TIF

Download (683 kB)
figure
posted on 23.11.2020, 04:56 by Jacob S. Fischman, Swapna Sista, DongKeun Lee, Giancarlo A. Cuadra, Dominic L. Palazzolo
Introduction

Electronic cigarette (ECIG) use or vaping has become popular globally. While the question “Is vaping safer than smoking?” continues, it is becoming clearer that one of the most dangerous components of E-liquids are the flavorings. Since the oral cavity is the first anatomical site to be assaulted by ECIG aerosol, the aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that flavored ECIG aerosols or E-liquids pose a more detrimental effect on the growth of commensal oral streptococcal bacteria compared to flavorless aerosols or E-liquids.

Methods

Kirby Bauer assays and 24-h planktonic growth curves were used to compare the effects of flavorless vs. flavored (tobacco, menthol, cinnamon, strawberry and blueberry) ECIG-generated aerosols and E-liquids on the growth of four common strains of oral commensal bacteria (Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis).

Results

Kirby Bauer assays revealed inhibition of growth for all bacteria tested when exposed to 100% menthol, cinnamon or strawberry flavors. In contrast, 5% flavor in E-liquid had no effect. When exposed to 100 puffs of ECIG-generated aerosol ± flavors (≈ 0.05% flavor in brain heart infusion media) or an equivalent amount of E-liquid ± flavors, twenty-four hour planktonic growth curves indicated no effect on growth for all streptococci tested. Subsequent twenty-four hour planktonic growth curves testing the effects of E-liquid ± flavors (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.3125, 0.625, and 1.25% flavor in brain heart infusion media) revealed dose-dependent inhibition of growth, particularly for menthol, cinnamon and strawberry), for all bacteria tested.

Conclusion

These results support the hypothesis that flavored E-liquids are more detrimental to the growth of oral commensal bacteria than unflavored E-liquids. The streptococci tested in this study are early colonizers and part of the foundation of oral biofilms and dental plaque. Disturbances in the composition and growth of these primary colonizers is crucial to the development of a healthy dental plaque and host-bacteria interactions. E-liquids and their aerosols containing flavoring agents alter the growth of these bacteria. Such perturbations of pioneering oral communities pose a potential risk to the health of the oral cavity and, ultimately, health in general.

History

References