Image_1_FTY720 Regulates Mitochondria Biogenesis in Dendritic Cells to Prevent Kidney Ischemic Reperfusion Injury.JPEG

Dendritic cells (DCs) are central in regulating immune responses of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), and strategies to alter DC function may provide new therapeutic opportunities. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) modulates immunity through binding to its receptors (S1P1-5), and protection from kidney IRI occurs in mice treated with S1PR agonist, FTY720 (FTY). We tested if ex vivo propagation of DCs with FTY could be used as cellular therapy to limit the off-target effects associated with systemic FTY administration in kidney IRI. DCs have the ability of regulate innate and adaptive responses and we posited that treatment of DC with FTY may underlie improvements in kidney IRI. Herein, it was observed that treatment of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) with FTY induced mitochondrial biogenesis, FTY-treated BMDCs (FTY-DCs) showed significantly higher oxygen consumption rate and ATP production compared to vehicle treated BMDCs (Veh-DCs). Adoptive transfer of FTY-DCs to mice 24 h before or 4 h after IRI significantly protected the kidneys from injury compared to mice treated with Veh-DCs. Additionally, allogeneic adoptive transfer of C57BL/6J FTY-DCs into BALB/c mice equally protected the kidneys from IRI. FTY-DCs propagated from S1pr1-deficient DCs derived from CD11cCreS1pr1fl/fl mice as well as blunting mitochondrial oxidation in wildtype (WT) FTY-DCs prior to transfer abrogated the protection observed by FTY-DCs. We queried if DC mitochondrial content alters kidney responses after IRI, a novel but little studied phenomenon shown to be integral to regulation of the immune response. Transfer of mitochondria rich FTY-DCs protects kidneys from IRI as transferred FTY-DCs donated their mitochondria to recipient splenocytes (i.e., macrophages) and prior splenectomy abrogated this protection. Adoptive transfer of FTY-DCs either prior to or after ischemic injury protects kidneys from IRI demonstrating a potent role for donor DC-mitochondria in FTY's efficacy. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, that DCs have the potential to protect against kidney injury by donating mitochondria to splenic macrophages to alter their bioenergetics thus making them anti-inflammatory. In conclusion, the results support that ex vivo FTY720-induction of the regulatory DC phenotype could have therapeutic relevance that can be preventively infused to reduce acute kidney injury.