Image_1_Effects of Alcohol Binge Drinking and Oleoylethanolamide Pretreatment in the Gut Microbiota.tiff
Chronic alcohol consumption is known to cause gut dysbiosis (changes in microbiota composition and/or function, disruptive of the normal host–microbiota interactions). However, little is known about the changes that alcohol binge drinking induces in the gut microbiota. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that a protocol of alcohol binge drinking, known to induce neuroinflammation in previous studies, also promotes intestinal dysbiosis, and we explored how oleoylethanolamide (OEA, an acylethanolamide proven to counteract alcohol binge drinking-induced neuroinflammation) pretreatment modulates alcohol-induced dysbiosis.Methods
Alcohol binges were forced by gavage three times per day during 4 consecutive days; OEA pretreatment (intraperitoneal or intragastric) was administered before each alcohol gavage. Stool microbiota composition was assessed by next-generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing, prior and after the 4-day alcohol binge protocol.Results
Alcohol binge drinking reduced the richness of the gut microbiota and changed the microbial community, reducing Lactobacillus among other genera. Pretreatment with OEA in the alcohol-administered rats decreased the richness, evenness, and Shannon indices to a greater extent with respect to alcohol alone, also changing the community structure. Microbial interactions in the association network were further decreased following OEA administration in the alcohol group, with respect to the water administration. The synergistic interaction between alcohol binge and OEA was affected by the route of administration of OEA, since oral and i.p. administrations differently changed the community structure.Conclusion
Results suggest that alcohol binge drinking produces a clear dysbiosis in animals; we observed that the well-known protective actions of OEA in the context of alcohol abuse might not be related to OEA-induced changes in alcohol-induced dysbiosis. These are observational results, and thus, further research will be needed for a complete understanding of the biological significance of the observed changes.