Image_1_Discovering Myeloid Cell Heterogeneity in Mandibular Bone – Cell by Cell Analysis.tif
The myeloid-derived bone marrow progenitor populations from different anatomical locations are known to have diverse osteoclastogenesis potential. Specifically, myeloid progenitors from the tibia and femur have increased osteoclast differentiation potential compared to myeloid progenitors from the alveolar process. In this study, we explored the differences in the myeloid lineage progenitor cell populations in alveolar (mandibular) bone versus long (femur) bone using flow cytometry and high-throughput single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to provide a comprehensive transcriptional landscape. Results indicate that mandibular bone marrow-derived cells exhibit consistent deficits in myeloid differentiation, including significantly fewer myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC)-like populations (CD11b+Ly6C+, CD11b+Ly6G+), as well as macrophages (CD11b+F4/80+). Although significantly fewer in number, MDSCs from mandibular bone exhibited increased immunosuppressive activity compared to MDSCs isolated from long bone. Using flow cytometry panels specific for bone marrow progenitors, analysis of hematopoietic stem cells showed no defects in mandibular bone marrow in LSK (Lin–Sca1+cKit+) cell and LK (Lin–Sca1–cKit+) cell populations. While there was no significant difference in granulocyte progenitors, the granulocyte-monocyte progenitors and monocyte progenitor population were significantly decreased in the mandibular bone marrow. T-lymphocyte subsets were not significantly different between mandibular and femoral bone, except for CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T lymphocytes, which were significantly increased in the mandible. In addition, B lymphocytes were significantly increased in mandible. Single cell RNA sequencing from mandible and femur BM revealed distinct differences in transcriptomic profiles in myeloid populations establishing previously unappreciated aspects of mandibular bone marrow populations. These analyses reveal site-specific differences in the myeloid progenitor cellular composition and transcriptional programs providing a deeper appreciation of the complex differences in myeloid cell heterogeneity from different anatomical bone marrow sites.