Image_1_Deep Investigating the Changes of Gut Microbiome and Its Correlation With the Shifts of Host Serum Metabolome Around Parturition in Sows.TIFF
Parturition is a crucial event in the sow reproduction cycle, which accompanies by a series of physiological changes, including sex hormones, metabolism, and immunity. More and more studies have indicated the changes of the gut microbiota from pregnancy to parturition. However, what bacterial species and functional capacities of the gut microbiome are changed around parturition has been largely unknown, and the correlations between the changes of gut bacterial species and host metabolome were also uncovered. In this study, by combining 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing data, and the profiles of serum metabolome and fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), we investigated the changes of gut microbiome, serum metabolite features and fecal SCFAs from late pregnancy (LP) to postpartum (PO) stage. We found the significant changes of gut microbiota from LP to PO stage in both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomic sequencing analyses. The bacterial species from Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Clostridium were enriched at the LP stage, while the species from Bacteroides, Escherichia, and Campylobacter had higher abundances at the PO stage. Functional capacities of the gut microbiome were also significantly changed and associated with the shifts of gut bacteria. Untargeted metabolomic analyses revealed that the metabolite features related to taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, and arginine biosynthesis and metabolism were enriched at the LP stage, and positively associated with those bacterial species enriched at the LP stage, while the metabolite features associated with vitamin B6 and glycerophospholipid metabolism had higher abundances at the PO stage and were positively correlated with the bacteria enriched at the PO stage. Six kinds of SCFAs were measured in feces samples and showed higher concentrations at the LP stage. These results suggested that the changes of gut microbiome from LP to PO stage lead to the shifts of host lipid, amino acids and vitamin metabolism and SCFA production. The results from this study provided new insights for the changes of sow gut microbiome and host metabolism around parturition, and gave new knowledge for guiding the feeding and maternal care of sows from late pregnancy to lactation in the pig industry.