Image_1_Correlation Between Liver Stiffness and Diastolic Function, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, and Right Cardiac Function in Patients With Ejection Fraction Preserved Heart Failure.PNG
Objective: Ejection fraction preserved heart failure (HFpEF) is a common clinical syndrome with a high morbidity, accounting for ~50% of all heart failure patients, and a mortality comparable to that of ejection fraction reduced heart failure (HFrEF). The relationship between liver stiffness (LS) and HFpEF remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between LS and the severity of HFpEF.
Methods: We performed a prospective observational study. After accepting liver transient elastography on admission, consecutive 150 hospitalized HFpEF patients were divided into three groups based on their liver elasticity value: first-third quartiles. Left ventricular diastolic function, left ventricular hypertrophy degree, right cardiac function and short-term prognosis (≤1 year) were compared among the three groups, and the correlation between liver elasticity and each indicator was analyzed.
Results: The elasticity of the liver was abnormally high in more than two-thirds of cases. The proportion of NYHA class III-IV in the third quartile group was significantly higher than that in the first quartile group (96 vs. 70%, P = 0.013). Significant differences were discovered in the level of lgNT-proBNP between the three groups (2.63 ± 0.65 vs. 2.84 ± 0.44 vs. 3.05 ± 0.71, P = 0.027). In terms of diastolic function and left ventricular hypertrophy, the ventricular septal e′ (5.01 ± 2.69 vs. 6.48 ± 2.29, P = 0.025), lateral wall e′ (6.63 ± 3.50 vs. 8.62 ± 2.73, P = 0.013), mean E/e′ (20.06 ± 7.53 vs. 13.20 ± 6.05, P = 0.001), left atrial volume index (43.53 ± 10.94 vs. 35.78 ± 13.86, P = 0.008), tricuspid regurgitation (TR) peak flow rate (3.16 ± 0.44 vs. 2.75 ± 0.50, P < 0.001), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in male (163.2 ± 47.6 vs. 131.3 ± 38.0, P = 0.015) and in female (147.4 ± 48.6 vs. 110.6 ± 24.3, P = 0.036) was significantly different between the third quartile and the first quartile. The proportion of patients with diastolic dysfunction in the third quartile was significantly higher than that in the first quartile (70 vs. 36%, P = 0.017). In terms of right cardiac function, right ventricular fractional area change (RVFAC) (30.3 ± 5.4 vs. 36.5 ± 6.8, P < 0.001), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) (7.7 ± 5.2 vs. 14.8 ± 5.9, P = 0.010), pulmonary systolic pressure (38.0 ± 10.5 vs. 32.4 ± 10.3, P = 0.005), TR peak flow rate (3.16 ± 0.44 vs. 2.75 ± 0.50, P < 0.001), and inferior vena cava diameter (2.53 ± 0.51 vs. 1.98 ± 0.41, P < 0.001) were significantly different between the third quartile and the first quartile. More than half of HFpEF patients were combined with right ventricular dysfunction (RVD). Compared to HFpEF without RVD, HFpEF with RVD had higher male sex (53.6 vs. 30.3%, P < 0.001), higher NYHA class (3.2 ± 0.6 vs. 2.8 ± 0.6, P = 0.010), higher proportion of atrial fibrillation (45.2 vs. 18.2%, P < 0.001), and higher liver elasticity value (7.95 ± 0.60 vs. 7.31 ± 0.84, P = 0.003). In terms of short-term prognosis, the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events was significantly higher in the third quartile than in the first quartile (P = 0.003) and the second quartile (P = 0.008). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that adverse cardiovascular events were independently associated with NYHA class, atrial fibrillation, lgNT-proBNP and liver elasticity value (HR = 1.208, 95% CI 1.115–1.352, P = 0.002).
Conclusion: Increase of liver stiffness is common in HFpEF patients. Increased LS in HFpEF patients was significantly associated with worsen left diastolic function, left ventricular hypertrophy, and the right cardiac function. LS in HFpEF patients may be more than the result of right ventricular dysfunction. Male, atrial fibrillation, poorer NYHA class and increased liver elasticity value were significantly associated with HFpEF combined with RVD. Atrial fibrillation, poorer NYHA class, higher NT-proBNP, and increased liver elasticity value were independent predictors of poor short-term prognosis of HFpEF patients.