Image_1_Contributions of Three Starch Branching Enzyme Isozymes to the Fine Structure of Amylopectin in Rice Endosperm.TIF
Figures are generally photos, graphs and static images that would be represented in traditional pdf publications.
Three starch branching enzyme (BE) isozymes, BEI, BEIIa, and BEIIb, are involved in starch biosynthesis in rice endosperm. Past in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that each BE isozyme plays a distinct role in forming the fine structure of amylopectin. To elucidate more details of their roles, we prepared DNA constructs in which all the possible combinations of the expressions of these three isozymes were suppressed in developing rice endosperm. Analysis of the chain-length distributions of amylopectin produced under these various conditions confirmed the contributions of the individual BE isozymes to the fine structure of amylopectin in rice endosperm. Among these isozymes, the impact of loss of BEIIb activity on amylopectin fine structure was most remarkable and indicated that it plays a specific role in the synthesis of short chains with a 6–13 degree of polymerization (DP). The contribution of BEI to the amylopectin synthesis was unclear when only BEI activity was reduced. It was clear, however, when both BEI and BEIIb activities were substantially inhibited. The DP11-22 intermediate chains were markedly reduced in the ΔBEI/BEIIb line compared with the ΔBEIIb line, indicating that BEI plays a distinct role in the synthesis of these intermediate chains. Although no substantial change in amylopectin chain profile was detected in the ΔBEIIa line, the role of BEIIa could be deciphered by analyzing amylopectin fine structure from the ΔBEI/BEIIa/BEIIb line in comparison to that from ΔBEI/BEIIb line. This strongly suggests that BEIIa compensates for the role of BEI, rather than that of BEIIb, by forming intermediate chains of DP11-22. In addition, the new possibility that BEIIa is involved in the formation of starch granules in rice endosperm was suggested because the onset temperature for gelatinization of starch granules in the ΔBEIIa/BEIIb line was significantly higher than that in the ΔBEIIb line. In summary, the present study highlights the distinct roles of BEI, BEIIa, and BEIIb in the synthesis of amylopectin in developing rice endosperm.
Read the peer-reviewed publication