Image_1_Associations Between Plasma Immunomodulatory and Inflammatory Mediators With VACS Index Scores Among Older HIV-Infected Adults on Antiretrovir.JPEG (1.87 MB)
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Image_1_Associations Between Plasma Immunomodulatory and Inflammatory Mediators With VACS Index Scores Among Older HIV-Infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy.JPEG

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posted on 30.06.2020, 04:18 by Thomas A. Premeaux, Shireen Javandel, Kalei R. J. Hosaka, Meredith Greene, Nicholas Therrien, Isabel E. Allen, Michael J. Corley, Victor G. Valcour, Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu

The prevalence of age-related comorbidities is increased in people living with HIV, even in those well-controlled on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Persistent immune activation and inflammation may play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis; however, the burden of morbidities in the older HIV infected population may be exacerbated and driven by distinct mechanisms. In a cross sectional study of 45 HIV-infected participants 60 years or older, we examined the relationships between 14 immunomodulatory and inflammatory factors and the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index, a metric of multimorbidity and mortality comprised of age, CD4 count, hemoglobin, Fibrosis-4 [FIB-4], and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], by linear regression analysis. All participants were virally suppressed (<50 HIV RNA copies/mL), on ART, and primarily Caucasian (86.7%), and male (91.1%). Plasma levels of monocyte/macrophage-associated (neopterin, IP-10, sCD163, sCD14, and MCP-1) and glycan-binding immunomodulatory factors (galectin (Gal)-1, Gal-3, and Gal-9) were assessed, as well as inflammatory biomarkers previously linked to the VACS Index (i.e., CRP, cystatin C, TNF-α, TNFRI, IL-6, and D-dimer) for comparison. In regression analysis, higher VACS index scores were associated with higher levels of neopterin, cystatin C, TNFRI, and Gal-9 (all p < 0.05), potentially driven by correlations found with individual VACS components, including age, CD4 count, FIB-4, and eGFR. Gal-9, cystatin C, and TNFRI directly correlated with the extent of multimorbidity. Multiple correlations among markers were observed, suggesting an interplay of overlapping, but distinct, pathways. Collectively, in addition to cystatin C and TNFRI, both galectin-9 and neopterin, independently emerged as novel fluid markers of the VACS Index and burden of comorbidity and may further guide in understanding pathogenic mechanisms of age-related disorders in older HIV-infected individuals on suppressive ART.

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