Image_1_Arenavirus Induced CCL5 Expression Causes NK Cell-Mediated Melanoma Regression.tif (73.4 kB)

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posted on 21.08.2020, 13:47 by Hilal Bhat, Gregor Zaun, Thamer A. Hamdan, Judith Lang, Tom Adomati, Rosa Schmitz, Sarah-Kim Friedrich, Michael Bergerhausen, Lamin B. Cham, Fanghui Li, Murtaza Ali, Fan Zhou, Vishal Khairnar, Vikas Duhan, Tim Brandenburg, Yara Maria Machlah, Maximilian Schiller, Arshia Berry, Haifeng Xu, Jörg Vollmer, Dieter Häussinger, Beatrice Thier, Aleksandra A. Pandyra, Dirk Schadendorf, Annette Paschen, Martin Schuler, Philipp A. Lang, Karl S. Lang

Immune activation within the tumor microenvironment is one promising approach to induce tumor regression. Certain viruses including oncolytic viruses such as the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and non-oncolytic viruses such as the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) are potent tools to induce tumor-specific immune activation. However, not all tumor types respond to viro- and/or immunotherapy and mechanisms accounting for such differences remain to be defined. In our current investigation, we used the non-cytopathic LCMV in different human melanoma models and found that melanoma cell lines produced high levels of CCL5 in response to immunotherapy. In vivo, robust CCL5 production in LCMV infected Ma-Mel-86a tumor bearing mice led to recruitment of NK cells and fast tumor regression. Lack of NK cells or CCL5 abolished the anti-tumoral effects of immunotherapy. In conclusion, we identified CCL5 and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity as new factors influencing melanoma regression during virotherapy.

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