Image_1_Alterations of Gut Microbiome and Metabolite Profiling in Mice Infected by Schistosoma japonicum.TIF (347.27 kB)
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Image_1_Alterations of Gut Microbiome and Metabolite Profiling in Mice Infected by Schistosoma japonicum.TIF

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posted on 2020-10-08, 13:16 authored by Yue Hu, Jiansong Chen, Yiyue Xu, Hongli Zhou, Ping Huang, Yubin Ma, Minzhao Gao, Shaoyun Cheng, Haiyun Zhou, Zhiyue Lv

Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) is one of the etiological agents of schistosomiasis, a widespread zoonotic parasitic disease. However, the mechanism of the balanced co-existence between the host immune system and S. japonicum as well as their complex interaction remains unclear. In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, combined with metagenomic sequencing approach as well as ultraperformance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry metabolic profiling, was applied to demonstrate changes in the gut microbiome community structure during schistosomiasis progression, the functional interactions between the gut bacteria and S. japonicum infection in BALB/c mice, and the dynamic metabolite changes of the host. The results showed that both gut microbiome and the metabolites were significantly altered at different time points after the infection. Decrease in richness and diversity as well as differed composition of the gut microbiota was observed in the infected status when compared with the uninfected status. At the phylum level, the gut microbial communities in all samples were dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Deferribacteres, while at the genus level, Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group, Bacteroides, Staphylococcus, and Alloprevotella were the most abundant. After exposure, Roseburia, and Ruminococcaceae UCG-014 decreased, while Staphylococcus, Alistipes, and Parabacteroides increased, which could raise the risk of infections. Furthermore, LEfSe demonstrated several bacterial taxa that could discriminate between each time point of S. japonicum infection. Besides that, metagenomic analysis illuminated that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and the chemokine signaling pathway were significantly perturbed after the infection. Phosphatidylcholine and colfosceril palmitate in serum as well as xanthurenic acid, naphthalenesulfonic acid, and pimelylcarnitine in urine might be metabolic biomarkers due to their promising diagnostic potential at the early stage of the infection. Alterations of glycerophospholipid and purine metabolism were also discovered in the infection. The present study might provide further understanding of the mechanisms during schistosome infection in aspects of gut microbiome and metabolites, and facilitate the discovery of new targets for early diagnosis and prognostic purposes. Further validations of potential biomarkers in human populations are necessary, and the exploration of interactions among S. japonicum, gut microbiome, and metabolites is to be deepened in the future.