Image_1_Aberrant Expression of Pseudogene-Derived lncRNAs as an Alternative Mechanism of Cancer Gene Regulation in Lung Adenocarcinoma.PNG (37.98 kB)
Download file

Image_1_Aberrant Expression of Pseudogene-Derived lncRNAs as an Alternative Mechanism of Cancer Gene Regulation in Lung Adenocarcinoma.PNG

Download (37.98 kB)
figure
posted on 06.03.2019, 04:02 by Greg L. Stewart, Katey S. S. Enfield, Adam P. Sage, Victor D. Martinez, Brenda C. Minatel, Michelle E. Pewarchuk, Erin A. Marshall, Wan L. Lam

Transcriptome sequencing has led to the widespread identification of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Subsequently, these genes have been shown to hold functional importance in human cellular biology, which can be exploited by tumors to drive the hallmarks of cancer. Due to the complex tertiary structure and unknown binding motifs of lncRNAs, there is a growing disparity between the number of lncRNAs identified and those that have been functionally characterized. As such, lncRNAs deregulated in cancer may represent critical components of cancer pathways that could serve as novel therapeutic intervention points. Pseudogenes are non-coding DNA sequences that are defunct relatives of their protein-coding parent genes but retain high sequence similarity. Interestingly, certain lncRNAs expressed from pseudogene loci have been shown to regulate the protein-coding parent genes of these pseudogenes in trans particularly because of this sequence complementarity. We hypothesize that this phenomenon occurs more broadly than previously realized, and that aberrant expression of lncRNAs overlapping pseudogene loci provides an alternative mechanism of cancer gene deregulation. Using RNA-sequencing data from two cohorts of lung adenocarcinoma, each paired with patient-matched non-malignant lung samples, we discovered 104 deregulated pseudogene-derived lncRNAs. Remarkably, many of these deregulated lncRNAs (i) were expressed from the loci of pseudogenes related to known cancer genes, (ii) had expression that significantly correlated with protein-coding parent gene expression, and (iii) had lncRNA protein-coding parent gene expression that was significantly associated with survival. Here, we uncover evidence to suggest the lncRNA-pseudogene-protein-coding gene axis as a prominent mechanism of cancer gene regulation in lung adenocarcinoma, and highlights the clinical utility of exploring the non-coding regions of the cancer transcriptome.

History

References