Image_1_A Risk Stratification Model for Predicting Overall Survival and Surgical Benefit in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients With de novo Distant Metastasis.TIF
Background and Aims: This research aimed to construct a novel model for predicting overall survival (OS) and surgical benefit in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients with de novo distant metastasis.
Methods: We collected data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for TNBC patients with distant metastasis between 2010 and 2016. Patients were excluded if the data regarding metastatic status, follow-up time, or clinicopathological information were incomplete. Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to identify significant prognostic parameters. By integrating these variables, a predictive nomogram and risk stratification model were constructed and assessed with C-indexes and calibration curves.
Results: A total of 1,737 patients were finally identified. Patients enrolled from 2010 to 2014 were randomly assigned to two cohorts, 918 patients in the training cohort and 306 patients in the validation cohort I, and 513 patients enrolled from 2015 to 2016 were assigned to validation cohort II. Seven clinicopathological factors were included as prognostic variables in the nomogram: age, marital status, T stage, bone metastasis, brain metastasis, liver metastasis, and lung metastasis. The C-indexes were 0.72 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68–0.76] in the training cohort, 0.71 (95% CI 0.68–0.74) in validation cohort I and 0.71 (95% CI 0.67–0.75) in validation cohort II. Calibration plots indicated that the nomogram-based predictive outcome had good consistency with the recoded prognosis. A risk stratification model was further generated to accurately differentiate patients into three prognostic groups. In all cohorts, the median overall survival time in the low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups was 17.0 months (95% CI 15.6–18.4), 11.0 months (95% CI 10.0–12.0), and 6.0 months (95% CI 4.7–7.3), respectively. Locoregional surgery improved prognosis in both the low-risk [hazard ratio [HR] 0.49, 95% CI 0.41–0.60, P < 0.0001] and intermediate-risk groups (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.46–0.67, P < 0.0001), but not in high-risk group (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.52–1.03, P = 0.068). All stratified groups could prognostically benefit from chemotherapy (low-risk group: HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.35–0.69, P < 0.0001; intermediate-risk group: HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.26–0.44, P < 0.0001; and high-risk group: HR 0.16, 95% CI 0.10–0.25, P < 0.0001).
Conclusion: A predictive nomogram and risk stratification model were constructed to assess prognosis in TNBC patients with de novo distant metastasis; these methods may provide additional introspection, integration and improvement for therapeutic decisions and further studies.