Image_1_A Neonatal Murine Escherichia coli Sepsis Model Demonstrates That Adjunctive Pentoxifylline Enhances the Ratio of Anti- vs. Pro-inflammatory C.PDF (95.3 kB)
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Image_1_A Neonatal Murine Escherichia coli Sepsis Model Demonstrates That Adjunctive Pentoxifylline Enhances the Ratio of Anti- vs. Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Blood and Organ Tissues.PDF

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posted on 23.09.2020, 04:14 by Esther M. Speer, Elizabet Diago-Navarro, Lukasz S. Ozog, Mahnoor Raheel, Ofer Levy, Bettina C. Fries

Introduction: Neonatal sepsis triggers an inflammatory response that contributes to mortality and multiple organ injury. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor which suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines, is a candidate adjunctive therapy for newborn sepsis. We hypothesized that administration of PTX in addition to antibiotics decreases live bacteria-induced pro-inflammatory and/or enhances anti-inflammatory cytokine production in septic neonatal mice without augmenting bacterial growth.

Methods: Newborn C57BL/6J mice (< 24 h old) were injected intravenously with 105 colony forming units (CFUs)/g weight of a bioluminescent derivative of the encapsulated clinical isolate Escherichia coli O18:K1. Adequacy of intravenous injections was validated using in vivo bioluminescence imaging and Evans blue. Pups were treated with gentamicin (GENT), PTX, (GENT + PTX) or saline at 0, 1.5, or 4 h after sepsis initiation, and euthanized after an additional 4 h. CFUs and cytokines were measured from blood and homogenized organ tissues.

Results: GENT alone inhibited bacterial growth, IL-1β, and IL-6 production in blood and organs. Addition of PTX to GENT profoundly inhibited E. coli-induced TNF and enhanced IL-10 in blood of newborn mice at all timepoints, whereas it primarily upregulated IL-10 production in peripheral organs (lung, spleen, brain). PTX, whether alone or adjunctive to GENT, did not increase microbial colony counts in blood and organs.

Conclusion: Addition of PTX to antibiotics in murine neonatal E. coli sepsis promoted an anti-inflammatory milieu through inhibition of plasma TNF and enhancement of IL-10 production in plasma and organs without increasing bacterial growth, supporting its utility as a potential adjunctive agent for newborn sepsis.

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