Image4_Isobutyrylcarnitine as a Biomarker of OCT1 Activity and Interspecies Differences in its Membrane Transport.PDF (58.24 kB)
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Image4_Isobutyrylcarnitine as a Biomarker of OCT1 Activity and Interspecies Differences in its Membrane Transport.PDF

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posted on 10.05.2021, 05:13 by Ole Jensen, Johannes Matthaei, Henry G. Klemp, Marleen J. Meyer, Jürgen Brockmöller, Mladen V. Tzvetkov

Genome-wide association studies have identified an association between isobutyrylcarnitine (IBC) and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) genotypes. Higher IBC blood concentrations in humans with active OCT1 genotypes and experimental studies with mouse OCT1 suggested an OCT1-mediated efflux of IBC. In this study, we wanted to confirm the suggested use of IBC as an endogenous biomarker of OCT1 activity and contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms behind the association between blood concentrations of carnitine derivatives and OCT1 genotype. Blood and urine IBC concentrations were quantified in healthy volunteers regarding intra- and interindividual variation and correlation with OCT1 genotype and with pharmacokinetics of known OCT1 substrates. Furthermore, IBC formation and transport were studied in cell lines overexpressing OCT1 and its naturally occurring variants. Carriers of high-activity OCT1 genotypes had about 3-fold higher IBC blood concentrations and 2-fold higher amounts of IBC excreted in urine compared to deficient OCT1. This was likely due to OCT1 function, as indicated by the fact that IBC correlated with the pharmacokinetics of known OCT1 substrates, like fenoterol, and blood IBC concentrations declined with a 1 h time delay following peak concentrations of the OCT1 substrate sumatriptan. Thus, IBC is a suitable endogenous biomarker reflecting both, human OCT1 (hOCT1) genotype and activity. While murine OCT1 (mOCT1) was an efflux transporter of IBC, hOCT1 exhibited no IBC efflux activity. Inhibition experiments confirmed this data showing that IBC and other acylcarnitines, like butyrylcarnitine, 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine, and hexanoylcarnitine, showed reduced efflux upon inhibition of mOCT1 but not of hOCT1. IBC and other carnitine derivatives are endogenous biomarkers of hOCT1 genotype and phenotype. However, in contrast to mice, the mechanisms underlying the IBC-OCT1 correlation in humans is apparently not directly the OCT1-mediated efflux of IBC. A plausible explanation could be that hOCT1 mediates cellular concentrations of specific regulators or co-substrates in lipid and energy metabolism, which is supported by our in vitro finding that at baseline intracellular IBC concentration is about 6-fold lower alone by OCT1 overexpression.