Image4_Comprehensive Molecular Analyses of a Novel Mutational Signature Classification System with Regard to Prognosis, Genomic Alterations, and Immune Landscape in Glioma.TIF
Background: Glioma is the most common malignant brain tumor with complex carcinogenic process and poor prognosis. The current molecular classification cannot fully elucidate the molecular diversity of glioma.
Methods: Using broad public datasets, we performed cluster analysis based on the mutational signatures and further investigated the multidimensional heterogeneity of the novel glioma molecular subtypes. The clinical significance and immune landscape of four clusters also investigated. The nomogram was developed using the mutational clusters and clinical characteristics.
Results: Four heterogenous clusters were identified, termed C1, C2, C3, and C4, respectively. These clusters presented distinct molecular features: C1 was characterized by signature 1, PTEN mutation, chromosome seven amplification and chromosome 10 deletion; C2 was characterized by signature 8 and FLG mutation; C3 was characterized by signature 3 and 13, ATRX and TP53 mutations, and 11p15.1, 11p15.5, and 13q14.2 deletions; and C4 was characterized by signature 16, IDH1 mutation and chromosome 1p and 19q deletions. These clusters also varied in biological functions and immune status. We underlined the potential immune escape mechanisms: abundant stromal and immunosuppressive cells infiltration and immune checkpoints (ICPs) blockade in C1; lack of immune cells, low immunogenicity and antigen presentation defect in C2 and C4; and ICPs blockade in C3. Moreover, C4 possessed a better prognosis, and C1 and C3 were more likely to benefit from immunotherapy. A nomogram with excellent performance was also developed for assessing the prognosis of patients with glioma.
Conclusion: Our results can enhance the mastery of molecular features and facilitate the precise treatment and clinical management of glioma.