Image3_Clinical Prognostic Value of the PLOD Gene Family in Lung Adenocarcinoma.TIF
Accumulating evidence has implicated members of the procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase (PLOD) gene family, PLOD1, PLOD2, and PLOD3, in cancer progression and metastasis. However, their expression, prognostic value, and mechanisms underlying their roles in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) have not yet been reported. We downloaded PLOD data for LUAD and normal tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). PLOD1-3 protein expression was evaluated using the Clinical Proteomics Tumor Analysis Consortium and Human Protein Atlas. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan–Meier method. A protein–protein interaction network was constructed using STRING software. The “ClusterProfiler” package was used for functional-enrichment analysis. The relationship between PLOD mRNA expression and immune infiltration was analyzed using the Tumor Immunity Assessment Resource and Tumor Immune System Interaction Database. The expression of PLODs in LUAD tissues was significantly upregulated compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. PLOD mRNA overexpression is associated with lymph node metastasis and high TNM staging. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that when the cut-off level was 6.073, the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of PLOD1 in distinguishing LUAD from adjacent controls were 84.4, 79.7, and 82.6%, respectively. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of PLOD2 in distinguishing LUAD from adjacent controls were 81.0, 98.3, and 68.0%, respectively, at a cut-off value of 4.360. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of PLOD3 in distinguishing LUAD from adjacent controls were 69.0, 86.4, and 52.0%, respectively, with a cut-off value of 5.499. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis demonstrated that LUAD patients with high PLODs had a worse prognosis than those with low PLODs. Correlation analysis showed that PLOD mRNA expression was related to immune infiltration and tumor purity. Upregulation of PLOD expression was significantly associated with poor survival and immune cell infiltration in LUAD. Our research shows that PLOD family members have potential as novel biomarkers for poor prognosis and as potential immunotherapy targets for LUAD.