Image3_BRCA1 interactors, RAD50 and BRIP1, as prognostic markers for triple-negative breast cancer severity.JPEG
Introduction: BRIP1 (BRCA1-interacting protein 1) is one of the major interacting partners of BRCA1, which plays an important role in repair by homologous recombination (HR). This gene is mutated in around 4% of cases of breast cancer; however, its mechanism of action is unclear. In this study, we presented the fundamental role of BRCA1 interactors BRIP1 and RAD50 in the development of differential severity in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) among various affected individuals.
Methods: We have analyzed the expression of DNA repair-related genes in different BC cells using Real-time PCR and western blotting analysis and assessed changes in stemness property and proliferation through Immunophenotyping. We have performed cell cycle analysis to see the defect in checkpoints and also immunofluorescence assay to confirm the accumulation of gamma-H2AX and BRCA1 foci and subsequent incidence. We have performed a severity analysis using TCGA data sets for comparing the expression in MDA-MB-468 MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cell line.
Results: We showed that in some TNBC cell lines such as MDA-MB-231, the functioning of both BRCA1/TP53 is compromised. Furthermore, the sensing of DNA damage is affected. Due to less damage-sensing capability and low availability of BRCA1 at the damage sites, the repair by HR becomes inefficient, leading to more damage. Accumulation of damage sends a signal for over activation of NHEJ repair pathways. Over expressed NHEJ molecules with compromised HR and checkpoint conditions lead to higher proliferation and error-prone repair, which increases the mutation rate and corresponding tumour severity. The in-silico analysis of the TCGA datasets with gene expression in the deceased population showed a significant correlation of BRCA1 expression with overall survival (OS) in TNBCs (0.0272). The association of BRCA1 with OS became stronger with the addition of BRIP1 expression (0.000876**).
Conclusion: The severity phenotypes were more in cells having compromised BRCA1–BRIP1 functioning. Since the OS is directly proportional to the extent of severity, the data analysis hints at the role of BRIP1 in controlling the severity of TNBC.
- Gene and Molecular Therapy
- Gene Expression (incl. Microarray and other genome-wide approaches)
- Genetically Modified Animals
- Livestock Cloning
- Developmental Genetics (incl. Sex Determination)
- Epigenetics (incl. Genome Methylation and Epigenomics)
- Genome Structure and Regulation
- Genetic Engineering