Image3_Application of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Coupled With Spectral Matrix and Convolutional Neural Network for Identifying Geographical Origins of Gentiana rigescens Franch.tif
Accurate geographical origin identification is of great significance to ensure the quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to achieve the fast geographical origin identification of wild Gentiana rigescens Franch (G. rigescens Franch). However, LIBS spectra with too many variables could increase the training time of models and reduce the discrimination accuracy. In order to solve the problems, we proposed two methods. One was reducing the number of variables through two consecutive variable selections. The other was transforming the spectrum into spectral matrix by spectrum segmentation and recombination. Combined with convolutional neural network (CNN), both methods could improve the accuracy of discrimination. For the underground parts of G. rigescens Franch, the optimal accuracy in the prediction set for the two methods was 92.19 and 94.01%, respectively. For the aerial parts, the two corresponding accuracies were the same with the value of 94.01%. Saliency map was used to explain the rationality of discriminant analysis by CNN combined with spectral matrix. The first method could provide some support for LIBS portable instrument development. The second method could offer some reference for the discriminant analysis of LIBS spectra with too many variables by the end-to-end learning of CNN. The present results demonstrated that LIBS combined with CNN was an effective tool to quickly identify the geographical origin of G. rigescens Franch.