Image2_Characterization of Hypoxia-Related Molecular Subtypes in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma to Aid Immunotherapy and Targeted Therapy via Multi-Omics Analysis.TIF
Objective: Tumor hypoxia is a key factor in resistance to anti-cancer treatment. Herein, this study aimed to characterize hypoxia-related molecular subtypes and assess their correlations with immunotherapy and targeted therapy in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).
Materials: We comprehensively analyzed copy number variation (CNV), somatic mutation, transcriptome expression profile and clinical information for ccRCC from TCGA and ICGC databases. Based on 98 prognosis-related hypoxia genes, samples were clustered using unsupervized non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) analysis. We characterized the differences between subtypes concerning prognosis, CNV, somatic mutations, pathways, immune cell infiltrations, stromal/immune scores, tumor purity, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), response to immunotherapy and targeted therapy and CXC chemokines. Based on differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between subtypes, a prognostic signature was built by LASSO Cox regression analysis, followed by construction of a nomogram incorporating the signature and clinical features.
Results: Two hypoxia-related molecular subtypes (C1 and C2) were constructed for ccRCC. Differential CNV, somatic mutations and pathways were found between subtypes. C2 exhibited poorer prognosis, higher immune/stromal scores, and lower tumor purity than C1. Furthermore, C2 had more sensitivity to immunotherapy and targeted therapy than C1. The levels of CXCL1/2/3/5/6/8 chemokines in C2 were distinctly higher than in C1. Consistently, DEGs between subtypes were significantly enriched in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and immune responses. This subtype-specific signature can independently predict patients’ prognosis. Following verification, the nomogram could be utilized for personalized prediction of the survival probability.
Conclusion: Our findings characterized two hypoxia-related molecular subtypes for ccRCC, which can assist in identifying high-risk patients with poor clinical outcomes and patients who can benefit from immunotherapy or targeted therapy.