Image1_Prediction of Liver Weight Recovery by an Integrated Metabolomics and Machine Learning Approach After 2/3 Partial Hepatectomy.TIF
Liver has an ability to regenerate itself in mammals, whereas the mechanism has not been fully explained. Here we used a GC/MS-based metabolomic method to profile the dynamic endogenous metabolic change in the serum of C57BL/6J mice at different times after 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PHx), and nine machine learning methods including Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator Regression (LASSO), Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS), Principal Components Regression (PCR), k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Random Forest (RF), eXtreme Gradient Boosting (xgbDART), Neural Network (NNET) and Bayesian Regularized Neural Network (BRNN) were used for regression between the liver index and metabolomic data at different stages of liver regeneration. We found a tree-based random forest method that had the minimum average Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and the maximum R square (R2) and is time-saving. Furthermore, variable of importance in the project (VIP) analysis of RF method was performed and metabolites with VIP ranked top 20 were selected as the most critical metabolites contributing to the model. Ornithine, phenylalanine, 2-hydroxybutyric acid, lysine, etc. were chosen as the most important metabolites which had strong correlations with the liver index. Further pathway analysis found Arginine biosynthesis, Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, Galactose metabolism, Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation were the most influenced pathways. In summary, several amino acid metabolic pathways and glucose metabolism pathway were dynamically changed during liver regeneration. The RF method showed advantages for predicting the liver index after PHx over other machine learning methods used and a metabolic clock containing four metabolites is established to predict the liver index during liver regeneration.