Image1_Effects of Fine Particulate Matter on Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity: A Study on Seven Metropolitan Cities in South Korea.TIF
Objectives: The primary purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the first occurrence of hospitalization for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) exposure, considering average PM2.5 concentration and the frequency of high PM2.5 concentration simultaneously.
Methods: We used large-scale cohort data from seven metropolitan cities in South Korea. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the Cox proportional-hazards model, including annual average PM2.5 and annual hours of PM2.5 concentration exceeding 55.5 μg/m3 (FH55).
Results: We found that the risk was elevated by 11.6% (95% CI, 9.7–13.6) for all CVD per 2.9 μg/m3 increase of average PM2.5. In addition, a 94-h increase in FH55 increased the risk of all CVD by 3.8% (95% CI, 2.8–4.7). Regarding stroke, we found that people who were older and had a history of hypertension were more vulnerable to PM2.5 exposure.
Conclusion: Based on the findings, we conclude that accurate forecasting, information dissemination, and timely warning of high concentrations of PM2.5 at the national level may reduce the risk of CVD occurrence.