table_1_Coagulation Factor X Regulated by CASC2c Recruited Macrophages and Induced M2 Polarization in Glioblastoma Multiforme.docx (18.6 kB)

table_1_Coagulation Factor X Regulated by CASC2c Recruited Macrophages and Induced M2 Polarization in Glioblastoma Multiforme.docx

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posted on 06.07.2018 by Yan Zhang, Jianbo Feng, Haijuan Fu, Changhong Liu, Zhibin Yu, Yingnan Sun, Xiaoling She, Peiyao Li, Chunhua Zhao, Yang Liu, Tao Liu, Qiang Liu, Qing Liu, Guiyuan Li, Minghua Wu

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a major component of inflammatory cells in the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor microenvironment. TAMs have been implicated in GBM angiogenesis, invasion, local tumor recurrence, and immunosuppression. Coagulation factor X (FX) is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that plays a role in the regulation of blood coagulation. In this study, we first found that FX was highly expressed and positively correlated with TAM density in human GBM. FX exhibited a potent chemotactic capacity to recruit macrophages and promoted macrophages toward M2 subtype polarization, accelerating GBM growth. FX bound to extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2 and inhibited p-ERK1/2 in GBM cells. FX was secreted in the tumor microenvironment and increased the phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in macrophages, which may have been responsible for the M2 subtype macrophage polarization. Moreover, although the lncRNA CASC2c has been verified to function as a miR-101 competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to promote miR-101 target genes in GBM cells, we first confirmed that CASC2c did not function as a miR-338-3p ceRNA to promote FX expression, and that FX was a target gene of miR-338-3p. CASC2c interacted with and reciprocally repressed miR-338-3p. Both CASC2c and miR-388-3p bound to FX and commonly inhibited its expression and secretion. CASC2c repressed M2 subtype macrophage polarization. Taken together, our findings revealed a novel mechanism highlighting CASC2c and FX as potential therapeutic targets to improve GBM patients by altering the GBM microenvironment.

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