datasheet3_Elucidation of the Mechanism of Action of Ginseng Against Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome by a Network Pharmacology-Based Strategy.xlsx
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complex cascade that develops from acute lung injury (ALI). Ginseng can be used to treat ALI/ARDS. Studies have shown that some of ingredients in ginseng had anti-inflammation, antioxidative, and immune regulation effects and can protect alveolar epithelial cells in mice. However, the potential targets, biological processes, and pathways related to ginseng against ALI/ARDS have not been investigated systematically. We employed network pharmacology, molecular docking, and animal experiments to explore the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanism of action of ginseng against ALI/ARDS. We identified 25 compounds using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography Q-Orbitrap mass spectrometry and their 410 putative targets through database analyses. Sixty-nine of them were considered to be key targets of ginseng against ALI/ARDS according to overlapping with ALI/ARDS-related targets and further screening in a protein–protein interaction (PPI) network. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-AkT) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were recognized to have critical roles for ginseng in ALI/ARDS treatment. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), MAPK1, and interleukin (IL) 2 were the top six nodes identified by analyses of a compound–target-pathway network. Molecular docking showed that most of the ingredients in ginseng could combine well with the six nodes. Ginseng could reduce the pathologic damage, neutrophil aggregation, proinflammatory factors, and pulmonary edema in vivo and inhibit the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway through downregulating expressions of STAT3, VEGFA, FGF2, PIK3CA, MAPK1, and IL2. Our study provides a theoretical basis for ginseng treatment of ALI/ARDS.