Table_9_Expression Partitioning of Duplicate Genes at Single Cell Resolution in Arabidopsis Roots.xlsx (9.75 kB)

Table_9_Expression Partitioning of Duplicate Genes at Single Cell Resolution in Arabidopsis Roots.xlsx

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posted on 03.11.2020, 04:26 by Jeremy E. Coate, Andrew D. Farmer, John W. Schiefelbein, Jeff J. Doyle

Gene duplication is a key evolutionary phenomenon, prevalent in all organisms but particularly so in plants, where whole genome duplication (WGD; polyploidy) is a major force in genome evolution. Much effort has been expended in attempting to understand the evolution of duplicate genes, addressing such questions as why some paralog pairs rapidly return to single copy status whereas, in other pairs, both paralogs are retained and may diverge in expression pattern or function. The effect of a gene – its site of expression and thus the initial locus of its function – occurs at the level of a cell comprising a single cell type at a given state of the cell’s development. Using Arabidopsis thaliana single cell transcriptomic data we categorized patterns of expression for 11,470 duplicate gene pairs across 36 cell clusters comprising nine cell types and their developmental states. Among these 11,470 pairs, 10,187 (88.8%) had at least one copy expressed in at least one of the 36 cell clusters. Pairs produced by WGD more often had both paralogs expressed in root cells than did pairs produced by small scale duplications. Three quarters of gene pairs expressed in the 36 cell clusters (7,608/10,187) showed extreme expression bias in at least one cluster, including 352 cases of reciprocal bias, a pattern consistent with expression subfunctionalization. More than twice as many pairs showed reciprocal expression bias between cell states than between cell types or between roots and leaves. A group of 33 gene pairs with reciprocal expression bias showed evidence of concerted divergence of gene networks in stele vs. epidermis. Pairs with both paralogs expressed without bias were less likely to have paralogs with divergent mutant phenotypes; such bias-free pairs showed evidence of preservation by maintenance of dosage balance. Overall, we found considerable evidence of shifts in gene expression following duplication, including in >80% of pairs encoding 7,653 genes expressed ubiquitously in all root cell types and states for which we inferred the polarity of change.