Table_8_A Class 1 Histone Deacetylase as Major Regulator of Secondary Metabolite Production in Aspergillus nidulans.xlsx (153.63 kB)

Table_8_A Class 1 Histone Deacetylase as Major Regulator of Secondary Metabolite Production in Aspergillus nidulans.xlsx

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posted on 09.11.2018, 12:18 by Angelo Pidroni, Birgit Faber, Gerald Brosch, Ingo Bauer, Stefan Graessle

An outstanding feature of filamentous fungi is their ability to produce a wide variety of small bioactive molecules that contribute to their survival, fitness, and pathogenicity. The vast collection of these so-called secondary metabolites (SMs) includes molecules that play a role in virulence, protect fungi from environmental damage, act as toxins or antibiotics that harm host tissues, or hinder microbial competitors for food sources. Many of these compounds are used in medical treatment; however, biosynthetic genes for the production of these natural products are arranged in compact clusters that are commonly silent under growth conditions routinely used in laboratories. Consequently, a wide arsenal of yet unknown fungal metabolites is waiting to be discovered. Here, we describe the effects of deletion of hosA, one of four classical histone deacetylase (HDAC) genes in Aspergillus nidulans; we show that HosA acts as a major regulator of SMs in Aspergillus with converse regulatory effects depending on the metabolite gene cluster examined. Co-inhibition of all classical enzymes by the pan HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A and the analysis of HDAC double mutants indicate that HosA is able to override known regulatory effects of other HDACs such as the class 2 type enzyme HdaA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed a direct correlation between hosA deletion, the acetylation status of H4 and the regulation of SM cluster genes, whereas H3 hyper-acetylation could not be detected in all the upregulated SM clusters examined. Our data suggest that HosA has inductive effects on SM production in addition to its classical role as a repressor via deacetylation of histones. Moreover, a genome wide transcriptome analysis revealed that in addition to SMs, expression of several other important protein categories such as enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism or proteins involved in disease, virulence, and defense are significantly affected by the deletion of HosA.

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