Table_7_Glycine max Homologs of DOESN'T MAKE INFECTIONS 1, 2, and 3 Function to Impair Heterodera glycines Parasitism While Also Regulating Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Expression.xlsx
Glycine max root cells developing into syncytia through the parasitic activities of the pathogenic nematode Heterodera glycines underwent isolation by laser microdissection (LM). Microarray analyses have identified the expression of a G. max DOESN'T MAKE INFECTIONS3 (DMI3) homolog in syncytia undergoing parasitism but during a defense response. DMI3 encodes part of the common symbiosis pathway (CSP) involving DMI1, DMI2, and other CSP genes. The identified DMI gene expression, and symbiosis role, suggests the possible existence of commonalities between symbiosis and defense. G. max has 3 DMI1, 12 DMI2, and 2 DMI3 paralogs. LM-assisted gene expression experiments of isolated syncytia under further examination here show G. max DMI1-3, DMI2-7, and DMI3-2 expression occurring during the defense response in the H. glycines-resistant genotypes G.max[Peking/PI548402] and G.max[PI88788] indicating a broad and consistent level of expression of the genes. Transgenic overexpression (OE) of G. max DMI1-3, DMI2-7, and DMI3-2 impairs H. glycines parasitism. RNA interference (RNAi) of G. max DMI1-3, DMI2-7, and DMI3-2 increases H. glycines parasitism. The combined opposite outcomes reveal a defense function for these genes. Prior functional transgenic analyses of the 32-member G. max mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene family has determined that 9 of them act in the defense response to H. glycines parasitism, referred to as defense MAPKs. RNA-seq analyses of root RNA isolated from the 9 G. max defense MAPKs undergoing OE or RNAi reveal they alter the relative transcript abundances (RTAs) of specific DMI1, DMI2, and DMI3 paralogs. In contrast, transgenically-manipulated DMI1-3, DMI2-7, and DMI3-2 expression influences MAPK3-1 and MAPK3-2 RTAs under certain circumstances. The results show G. max homologs of the CSP, and defense pathway are linked, apparently involving co-regulated gene expression.