Table_6_Gut Microbiome Contributes to Liver Fibrosis Impact on T Cell Receptor Immune Repertoire.XLSX
Gut microbiota (GM) modifies the intrahepatic immune microenvironment, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Liver fibrosis-associated imprinting is predicted to be reflected in GM. This study investigated the link between GM and the intrahepatic T cell receptor (TCR) immune repertoire (IR), and whether GM modulates the intrahepatic immune microenvironment via TCR IR during liver fibrosis. We analyzed the correlation between GM and TCR IR during liver fibrogenesis. Accordingly, 16S rRNA gene sequencing (16S-seq) and bulk immune repertoire sequencing (IR-seq) were performed to characterize GM and intrahepatic TCR IR. Fecal microbial transplant (FMT) and TCRβ knockout (TcrbKO) mouse models were employed to determine the biological link between GM and TCR IR in liver fibrosis. We found that GM and intrahepatic TCR IR are highly correlated, with both showing reduced diversity and centralized distribution during liver fibrosis. The restoration of normal intestinal microbiota may reshape intrahepatic TCR IR and delay liver fibrosis. Interestingly, TCR IR ablation abrogated the impact of GM on liver fibrogenesis. Furthermore, GM modulated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation via TCR IR-mediated intrahepatic immune milieu. Our study demonstrates that GM, which exhibits cross-talk with the intrahepatic TCR IR, influences the intrahepatic immune microenvironment and liver fibrosis progression.