Table_6_Flor Yeasts Rewire the Central Carbon Metabolism During Wine Alcoholic Fermentation.XLSX
The identification of natural allelic variations controlling quantitative traits could contribute to decipher metabolic adaptation mechanisms within different populations of the same species. Such variations could result from human-mediated selection pressures and participate to the domestication. In this study, the genetic causes of the phenotypic variability of the central carbon metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in the context of the enological fermentation. The genetic determinism of this trait was found out by a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approach using the offspring of two strains belonging to the wine genetic group of the species. A total of 14 QTL were identified from which 8 were validated down to the gene level by genetic engineering. The allelic frequencies of the validated genes within 403 enological strains showed that most of the validated QTL had allelic variations involving flor yeast specific alleles. Those alleles were brought in the offspring by one parental strain that contains introgressions from the flor yeast genetic group. The causative genes identified are functionally linked to quantitative proteomic variations that would explain divergent metabolic features of wine and flor yeasts involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), the glyoxylate shunt and the homeostasis of proton and redox cofactors. Overall, this work led to the identification of genetic factors that are hallmarks of adaptive divergence between flor yeast and wine yeast in the wine biotope. These results also reveal that introgressions originated from intraspecific hybridization events promoted phenotypic variability of carbon metabolism observed in wine strains.