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Table_6_Exploitation of tumor antigens and construction of immune subtype classifier for mRNA vaccine development in bladder cancer.xlsx (10.89 kB)

Table_6_Exploitation of tumor antigens and construction of immune subtype classifier for mRNA vaccine development in bladder cancer.xlsx

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posted on 2022-11-16, 04:34 authored by Xin Zhang, Yanlong Zhang, Li Zhao, Jiayu Wang, Jiaxing Li, Xi Wang, Min Zhang, Xiaopeng Hu
Background

Bladder cancer (BLCA) is one of the most prevalent urinary system malignancies, with high mortality and recurrence. The present study aimed to identify potential tumor antigens for mRNA vaccines in BLCA and patient subtypes suitable for different immunotherapy.

Methods

Gene expression profiles, mutation data, methylation data, and corresponding clinical information were obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and ArrayExpress databases. Immunohistochemical staining of microarrays was performed to assess protein expression levels of IGF2BP2 and MMP9. Differential gene analysis, survival analysis, correlation analysis, consensus clustering analysis, and immune cell infiltration analysis were conducted using R software. Finally, the R package “immcluster” was used based on Combat and eXtreme Gradient Boosting algorithms to predict immune clusters of BLCA samples.

Results

Two mutated, amplified, and over-expressed tumor antigens, IGF2BP2 and MMP9, were found to be associated with clinical outcomes and the abundance of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Subsequently, three immune subtypes (BIS1, BIS2, and BIS3) were defined in the BLCA cohort. BIS3 subtype exhibited an “active” immune phenotype, while BIS1 and BIS2 subtypes have a “suppressive” immune phenotype. Patients in BIS1 and BIS2 had a poor prognosis compared to BIS3. BIS3 had a higher score in checkpoints or immunomodulators (CP) and immunophenoscore (IPS), while BIS1 and BIS2 scored higher in major histocompatibility complex-related molecules (MHC molecules). Meanwhile, BIS2 and BIS3 had a significantly higher tumor mutational burden (TMB) compared to patients with BIS1. Finally, the “immcluster” package was applied to the dataset, which has been shown to accurately predict the immune subtypes of BLCA samples in many cohorts.

Conclusions

IGF2BP2 and MMP9 were potential antigens for developing mRNA vaccines against BLCA. The results in the present study suggested that immunotherapy targeting these two antigens would be suitable for patients falling under the BIS2 subtype. R package “immcluster” could assist in screening suitable BLCA patients for antitumor therapy.

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