Table_5_Whole Genome Sequencing Links Mycobacterium bovis From Cattle, Cheese and Humans in Baja California, Mexico.XLSX (31.93 kB)
Download file

Table_5_Whole Genome Sequencing Links Mycobacterium bovis From Cattle, Cheese and Humans in Baja California, Mexico.XLSX

Download (31.93 kB)
posted on 2021-08-03, 05:16 authored by Alejandro Perera Ortiz, Claudia Perea, Enrique Davalos, Estela Flores Velázquez, Karen Salazar González, Erika Rosas Camacho, Ethel Awilda García Latorre, Citlaltepetl Salinas Lara, Raquel Muñiz Salazar, Doris M. Bravo, Tod P. Stuber, Tyler C. Thacker, Suelee Robbe-Austerman

Mycobacterium bovis causes tuberculosis (TB) in cattle, which in turn can transmit the pathogen to humans. Tuberculosis in dairy cattle is of particular concern where the consumption of raw milk and dairy products is customary. Baja California (BCA), Mexico, presents high prevalence of TB in both cattle and humans, making it important to investigate the molecular epidemiology of the disease in the region. A long-term study was undertaken to fully characterize the diversity of M. bovis genotypes circulating in dairy cattle, cheese and humans in BCA by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). During a 2-year period, 412 granulomatous tissue samples were collected from local abattoirs and 314 cheese samples were purchased from local stores and vendors in BCA and sent to the laboratory for mycobacterial culture, histology, direct PCR and WGS. For tissue samples M. bovis was recovered from 86.8%, direct PCR detected 90% and histology confirmed 85.9% as mycobacteriosis-compatible. For cheese, M. bovis was recovered from 2.5% and direct PCR detected 6% of the samples. There was good agreement between diagnostic tests. Subsequently, a total of 345 whole-genome SNP sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis grouped these isolates into 10 major clades. SNP analysis revealed putative transmission clusters where the pairwise SNP distance between isolates from different dairies was ≤3 SNP. Also, human and/or cheese isolates were within 8.45 (range 0–17) and 5.8 SNP (range 0–15), respectively, from cattle isolates. Finally, a comparison between the genotypes obtained in this study and those reported previously suggests that the genetic diversity of M. bovis in BCA is well-characterized, and can be used to determine if BCA is the likely source of M. bovis in humans and cattle in routine epidemiologic investigations and future studies. In conclusion, WGS provided evidence of ongoing local transmission of M. bovis among the dairies in this high-TB burden region of BCA, as well as show close relationships between isolates recovered from humans, cheese, and cattle. This confirms the need for a coordinated One Health approach in addressing the elimination of TB in animals and humans. Overall, the study contributes to the knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of M. bovis in BCA, providing insight into the pathogen's dynamics in a high prevalence setting.