Table_5_Transcriptome-Wide Effects of Sphingosine Kinases Knockdown in Metastatic Prostate and Breast Cancer Cells: Implications for Therapeutic Targeting.docx
Sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SK1 and SK2) are proto-oncogenic isozymes expressed in many human tumors and associated with chemoresistance and poor prognosis. They are well-recognized therapy targets and their inhibition was shown to induce tumor volume reduction and chemosensitization in multiple cancer models. Oncogenic signaling is extremely complex and often cross-regulated. Designing molecular therapies and their combinations requires rational approaches to avoid redundant targeting or developing resistance. In this study, we have performed RNA transcriptome microarray analysis of two breast and two prostate metastatic cancer cell lines treated with siRNAs targeting SK1 or SK2. In prostate cancer cell lines SK1 knockdown (KD) has significantly changed expression of several genes including downregulation of NSUN2, G3BP2 and upregulation of ETS1. SK2 KD also affected expression of multiple genes including downregulation of CAPZA1 NSUN3 and ADPGK and upregulation of VDAC1, IBTK, ETS1, and MKNK2. Similarly, in breast cancer cells SK1 KD led to downregulation of NSUN2, NFATC3, CDK2, and G3BP2 and upregulation of GTF2B, TTC17, and RAB23. SK2 KD in breast cancer cells has decreased expression of ITGAV and CAPZA1 and increased expression of GTF2B and ST13. Gene-set enrichment analysis of known biochemical pathways showed that in prostate and breast cell lines SKs KD have altered multiple pathways. SK1 KD altered chromatin assembly, regulation of G1/S transition and mitosis, Wnt and MAP kinase signaling and cell motility. SK2 KD altered RAS protein signal transduction, regulation of MAP kinase and serine/threonine kinase activity, cell motility, small GTPase mediated signal transduction and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Through genome-wide microarray analysis, we have identified important molecular pathways affected by SK1 and SK2 KD. It appears that while KD of both genes leads to a decrease in individual pro-tumorigenic genes, there is a universal cellular response resulting in upregulation of several known pro-survival and pro-tumorigenic pathways such as MAPK, RAS, and PI3K, which may mediate cancer resistance to anti-SKs therapies. Our data point out to the potential advantage of certain molecular therapy combinations in targeting prostate and breast cancer. Further signaling studies are required to confirm the individual involvement of identified pathways.